Download The Britannica Guide to Matter by Erik Gregersen PDF

By Erik Gregersen

The examine of subject is the learn of all fabric issues, in addition to their skill to remodel from one kingdom to a different. All topic assumes among the easy statessolid, liquid, gasoline, and plasma being the commonest. below various stipulations, every one country may be altered to shape new ingredients or undertake new features. This insightful publication covers some of the constructions and components of alternative sorts of topic, whereas studying the actual and chemical homes that permit for permutation and alter.

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29 7 The Britannica Guide to Matter 7 Viscosity All ordinary fluids exhibit viscosity, which is a type of internal friction. A continuous application of force is needed to keep a fluid flowing, just as a continuous force is needed to keep a solid body moving in the presence of friction. Consider the case of a fluid slowly flowing through a long capillary tube. A pressure difference of Δp must be maintained across the ends to keep the fluid flowing, and the resulting flow rate is proportional to Δp.

Mean Free Path and Collision Rate The average molecular speed, along with an observed rate of the diffusion of gases, can be used to estimate the length and tortuosity of the path traveled by a typical molecule. If a bottle of ammonia is opened in a closed room, at least a few minutes pass before the ammonia can be detected at a distance of just one metre. ) Yet, if the ammonia molecules traveled directly to an observer at a speed somewhat faster than that of sound, the odour should be detectable in only a few milliseconds.

The properties of the thermal conductivity of dilute gases parallel those of viscosity in some respects. The most striking is the lack of dependence on pressure or density. Based on this fact, there seems to be no advantage to pumping out the inner chambers of thermos bottles. As far as conduction is concerned, it does not provide any benefits until practically all the air has been removed and free-molecule conduction is occurring. Convection, however, does depend on density, so some degree of insulation is provided by pumping out only some of the air.

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