Download Air-Sea Exchange of Gases and Particles by Lutz Hasse (auth.), Peter S. Liss, W. George N. Slinn (eds.) PDF

By Lutz Hasse (auth.), Peter S. Liss, W. George N. Slinn (eds.)

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Also, satellite pictures have given spectacular evidence that mountainous islands or capes produce eddies of von Karman vortex street type in the air and water downstream of the disturbances. 5. CONVECTION AND STABILITY We now consider the motions of air volumes of smaller extent, which we may call parcels or blobs, and which may have typical diameters from say 100 m to a few kilometers. We have described the larger scale circulations as coherent flows of air masses. For example at a warm front of a depression the warm air is gliding slowly upwards above the cold air.

Dashed line is the individual temperature change along dry and wet adiabats. In the upper graph, a parcel lifted from the ground with the indicated temperature would not reach condensation. In the middle graph, a lifted parcel would change its temperature following the dry adiabat up to the condensation level and then following the wet adiabat until it is stopped by the inversion. A shallow cumulus layer would result. In the lower graph, a lifted parcel. which has reached the condensation level, will (on its wet adiabatic ascent) remain warmer than the ambient air 34 L.

A parcel of air which is originally at the same temperature as the ambient air keeps its potential temperature when disp laced vertically and hence wi 11 be accelerated either back to its starting point (inversion condition, stable stratification, left part of the figure) or will be accelerated away from its equilibrium posltlon (lapse condition, unstable stratification, right part of the figure). An unstable situation is unlikely to persist in the free atmosphere, except near the surface, where the vertical movements (due to continuity) are hindered by the surface.

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