Download Advances in the Study of Bilingualism by Enlli Mon Thomas, Ineke Mennen PDF
By Enlli Mon Thomas, Ineke Mennen
This booklet offers a latest method of the research of bilingualism. Drawing on contributions from best specialists within the box, this e-book brings jointly - in one quantity - a range of the fascinating paintings performed as a part of the programme of the ESRC Centre for study on Bilingualism in conception and perform at Bangor college, Wales.
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Extra info for Advances in the Study of Bilingualism
Early attempts to produce onset clusters often result in forms that do not feature in the ambient language. Dyson (1988), for instance, reports that the most commonly produced cluster of the 2- to 3-year old English-learning children in her study was [fw]. ’s (1990) study were able to produce clusters containing a stop + /w/, by 4;6 to 5;6 clusters containing /l/, by 6;0 clusters containing /r/, and by 7;0 clusters containing /s/ and /θr/. The earliest target-like productions were /kw/ and /tw/, with /skr/ and /spr/ the last to develop.
Words were chosen with which young children were expected to be familiar and which could be elicited via pictorial representation. A few loanwords from English were included in the Welsh set since they were fully integrated into the Welsh language and could be found in a standard Welsh dictionary (Evans & Thomas, 2008). Only non-mutated word forms were included in the Welsh word list since mutation constitutes a separate aspect of Welsh language acquisition. Mutations are a characteristic of Celtic languages and involve morphophonological changes that affect the initial consonants of words (Ball & Müller, 1992; Thomas & Gathercole, 2007).
Thus, one of the Cantonese-English bilinguals in their study reduced Cantonese /kw/ to [t], but English /kw/ to [w]. Similarly, Grech and Dodd (2008) report different patterns of cluster reduction in three-year-old children exposed to Maltese and English at home versus those only exposed to Maltese: although both sets of children reduced fricative + stop, fricative + nasal and stop + stop clusters, only children with Maltese as their exclusive home language also reduced stop + approximant clusters.