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By National Academy of Engineering, National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable
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The instructing of engineering and a metamorphosis in liberal arts curricula, either prompted by means of business development, inspired the construction of specialised classes within the sciences. by way of the Eighteen Nineties, Gingras argues, expert researchers had all started to seem in Canadian universities. The technological calls for of the 1st global struggle and the founding, in 1916, of the nationwide study Council of Canada (NRC) speeded up the expansion of clinical examine.
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Additional resources for Academic Research Enterprise Within the Industrialized Nations: Comparative Perspectives
Kofmehl, “COSEPUP, Congress and Scientific Advice,” 28: (1966), pp. 100–120. 19. B. L. Smith and J. Karlesky, The State of Academic Science, Volumes I and II, New York: Change Magazine Press, 1977–78. 20. R. M. Rosenzweig, with B. Turlington, The Research Universities and Their Patrons, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982. 21. Ibid; Research Universities and the National Interest: A Report of Fifteen University Presidents. ; American Society for Engineering Education, The Quality of Engineering Education.
A combination of research and teaching is still very much the norm. Relations between universities and private industry in Japan have shown nothing like the consistency of thinking about the academic role of the teacher-researcher. Prior to 1914 Japanese companies had little interest in developing research capabilities either alone or in conjunction with universities. But they did employ university professors as ad hoc consultants regarding foreign technology so often as to generate allegations that professors were neglecting students and their own research.
Following a 1954 initiative from the Ministry of Education, the Nikkeiren (Japanese Federation of Economic Organizations) issued a formal report in 1956 which criticized the law-liberal arts biases in the selection of university students and demanded more emphasis on science and engineering. In 1961, the cabinet of Prime Minister Hayato Ikeda acted on this recommendation by increasing dramatically the number of university places reserved for students in science and engineering. Whereas matriculation slots for such students were 28 percent of the total in 1952, by 1968 they constituted 46 percent.